Unlike with AC transmission, there is no distance limitation when using HVDC cables for underground or submarine transmission. HVDC transmission is directly controllable firming up capacity by mitigating congestion on parallel paths.
As more and more final consumers are metered hourly, the volume of meter values that grid operators have to collect, store, and transmit to other actors in the electricity market continues to grow. But hourly metering does not have to be a burden for grid operators - the growing volumes of meter values can be analyzed in multiple ways to provide grid operators with valuable insights that allow them to make better decisions.
While the addition of each Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) to the street is a victory for the environment, their widespread adoption will present another potential challenge to the power distribution system, particularly in urban networks.
Recent developments in communications, computational capability, and data availability all lend themselves to a high level of intelligence both on the battlefield and within the utility. The proposed benefits of the "smart grid" align well with recent developments in data integration, mining, and fusion.
The maturity of the smart grid security in Europe could be evaluated as medium to low; that is what our study demonstrated. We are still trying to find out how to implement the smart grid on our electricity power infrastructure, after which we would conceive how the security should be applied. This is not a good approach, we need to define what instruments we should use (requirements for smart grids) in the smart grid before any other action can be taken into account.
Wireless communication networks allow operators to become knowledgeable about the health of the grid. FHSS wireless data radios help decrease wasted energy and loss of power by sending critical data to an operator's fingertips. Wireless I/O, in particular, can be utilized to monitor and control critical electric power applications.
The tremendous benefit of Smart Grid technologies is encouraging action at EU and Member State level, such as with standardisation and implementation of funding schemes and other regulatory incentives for development projects.
Ultimately, a wireless communication system that lowers cost, speeds up deployment, and accelerates global energy efficiency and usage, can enable companies to design state-of-the-art Smart Grid solutions, water & gas distribution systems, condition & risk monitoring and energy-optimizing infrastructure systems.
We have a long way to go before AV, lighting, HVAC, and appliances come together within a home automation network that will work with smart meters and the utilities' back office system to communicate both ways flawlessly, controlling how and when energy is wisely consumed. Strides are being made in each area and we will see more systems coming together for the perfect balance of energy consumption and energy savings.
The Smart Grid is destined to become a platform, much like the Internet is a platform. Once the Grid is in place other technologies, new feature sets, and capabilities will inevitably spring forth. There is no limit to the functionality that might emerge from this platform once the implementation and adoption is widespread.
There are a myriad of communications players (technologies) that can be deployed across the smart grid applications layers. The "best fit" technology for any one layer or overall system. The first thing to drive the communications technology decision is the objective for the system. Add in the risk profile of the company and the communications requirements start to take shape.
On average, it could be assumed that 15% of the world total consumption of diesel, gasoline and jet fuels can be replaced by lignin.
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