Energy in all forms is closely linked to economic prosperity of the county. Energy demand is increasing day by day because of urbanization, climate change and global warming.
Pakistan is energy deficient country because of its inadequate energy power supply mix, rising energy gap between supply & demand, lack of energy efficiency legislation and its implementation.
Conventional ways of generation of electricity energy through non-renewable resources is a long term process and this process usually takes five to ten years. In parallel to this, we should adopt all alternate ways to save and generate electricity through renewable resources to overcome the energy crisis in Pakistan. We discuss below that what the alternate ways to save and generate energy are.
ENERGY CONSERVATION AND ENERGY EFFICEINCY IMPROVEMENT
The first and foremost task is to save and conserve energy in domestic, commercial, industrial and institutional facilities. Every facility is trying to conserve energy but process is too slow because of the lack of the energy conservation legislation and its implementation.
The most dominant energy saving activity is the replacement of incandescent lights with compact florescent lighting (CFL). No doubt this activity will save lot of energy but this is not sufficient. The energy saving activities to be adopted in domestic, industrial, commercial and institutional facilities are as follows,
- Insulation of buildings roofs, walls, pipes and ducts.
- Use of glazed glass at building facades
- Use of energy efficient materials in buildings
- Use of high efficiency motors, pumps and controllers
- Use of Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs)
- Replacement of conventional heating & cooling by solar water heating & cooling
- Replacement of electro-magnetic ballast by electronic ballasts
- Replacement of conventional lighting by LED and Solar Lighting
- Installation of automatic shut off of lighting
- Installation of occupancy sensors
- Installation of exterior lighting controls
Pakistan Engineering Council and ENERCON have made joint efforts to conclude the Building Energy Code 2010 through a task force consisting of experts from various sectors and Izhar Group also contributed in this endeavor but without legislation and its implementation, we can not achieve energy saving targets. There is a need for quick enforcement of the Building Energy code 2010 so that national energy saving targets can be achieved.
ALTERNATE AND RENEWABLE ENERGY APPLICATIONS
Solar Thermal is the process of generating heating and cooling through solar radiations. Solar Water Heaters are very economical and feasible option for use in domestic, commercial, industrial and institutional facilities. The barrier to the growth of application of solar water heating is the lack of knowledge, skills for installation, operation and use of solar water heaters. The user’s behavior and wrong perceptions is also one of the main barriers in its growth. The growth of the solar water heaters can be increased by creating more incentives by the government and making it mandatory through Building Energy Code to install solar water heaters in all kinds of facilities. The payback of solar water solution varies from one to two years.
Solar Photovoltaic is the process of generation of electricity through solar radiations. It is commonly called as PV. PV components include Solar Panels, Inverters and Charge Controllers, Deep Cycle Batteries, Mountings, cables and accessories. Solar PV solution is not affordable and feasible as the current price of PV solution is $8 per watt. This high cost is because of 40% duties on PV Components. The recent news in media about zero duty shows that Government has reduced duties to zero but one time zero duty needs more clarification by the Government. If the news of zero duty for all times is correct, this will spur growth in PV sector and this can help in saving energy. Grid Tied is process by which the electricity can be sold back by user to the grid at fixed feed-in-tariff and when electricity is sold back, the energy meter moves in reverse direction. Grid-Tied policy implementation is the real solution to overcome energy crisis in Pakistan.
Alternate and Renewable Energy Policy 2010 is almost ready and in last Women to Energy Conference at PEC, it was told by AEDB that this policy will be enforced in January 2011 but so far this policy is also prey to vested interests. This policy can bring revolution in Pakistan if truly implemented.
SOLAR & LED LIGHTING
Solar and LED lighting is really a best energy saving option. The barrier in its growth is the high percentage of duties on import of Solar and LED lights. If the duties are made zero, this sector can grow at faster pace. It is just an estimate that 400 watts of conventional search light can be replaced by 80 Watt LED search Lights. You can see tremendous search lights in Government and Pakistan buildings and about one fifth energy can be saved by just replacement of conventional lights with LED lights. LED lighting has tremendous advantages in comparison with conventional lighting.
Wind Power is relatively a cheaper alternate energy solution and Pakistan has great potential in wind power. The barrier in its growth is the lengthy process of acquisition of land and coordination issues of wind power developers with the Government Institutions. Implementation of AE and RE policy 2010 can be instrumental in its fast growth of wind power.
ENERGY ADMINSTRATION AUTHORITY
One of the barriers in growth of Alternate and Renewable applications is the lack of presence of one sole Energy Administration Authority for regulation of energy sector. We strongly recommend that that one Energy Administration Authority should be evolved to streamline decision making.
Energy Efficiency Improvement and use of alternate and renewable energy applications can bring the country out of energy crises and it will help in reduction of GHS emissions enhancing energy security of the country.
Government should provide facilitation through legislation, Private sector should follow the policies and laws and all chambers of commerce and industries should bridge this gap by providing platform where the Private and Government sector should work as team for growth of Alternate ad Renewable Energy Sector in Pakistan.
The writer is a graduate Engineer and MBA with 30 years experience of business development and marketing of technology products and solutions. He is also a visiting teacher in Universities. He is a member of REAP and ISES (International Solar Energy Society) Germany and member ASHARE USA. He is currently serving as General Manager Business Development in Izhar Energy Services – Izhar Group of companies.