The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables. This paper aims to disseminate new methods of obtaining energy.

The Battle for Energy

Florian Ion Petrescu , Relly Victoria Petrescu | Bucharest Polytechnic University

Introduction

 In the years 70-80 (1970-1980) it foreshadow a serious energy crisis with the rapid depletion of known reserves of oil and gas. The consequences would be catastrophic for mankind, but fortunately came just in time energy produced by nuclear fission. With Nuclear power we have saved, so they were a necessary evil. Another 2-3 cycles (a cycle is about 30-40 years) they could be useful (even if they will evolve and will use the energy produced by fusion, in which case their effectiveness will increase considerably). However, must to prepare from time, the new energy of the future, the mankind future energy.

The most elegant solution which can be now seen is solar energy. This is practically inexhaustible, in quantities much greater than the planet needs, it is the clean, handy and can become the most affordable (if panels with photovoltaic cells will be produced in industrial quantities increasing).

For make this method to obtaining solar energy, to be totally clean, it is absolutely imperative that converted solar energy into electricity to be distributed directly to national energy networks, to avoid the use of different batteries (polluting).

Although it is small, efficiency of energy conversion (in cells), has increased and will increase further due to scientific research in the field.

It must be made the indication that, all living matter on Earth is the energy of the sun, either directly or indirectly.

The discovery of real particles faster than the speed of light (probably smaller than those known today) may open new chapters in the development of mankind, first in the energy field. Going deeper into matter, and by passing from the quantum level to the sub quantum level, or maybe even deeper, it will determine the increasing energy. Matter is structured in such a way as if we can penetrating more inside it, the particles of which is composed are increasingly smaller and lighter, more dynamic and more energetic. Although particle mass decreases, the speed is much greater, so the particle energy is much higher (the energy increases with the mass and with the velocity squared of the particle). Links to quantum levels (within the atom) are more powerful than the chemical-molecular (in the molecule or between atoms), but lower than those of sub quantum level (in the atomic nucleus, between nucleons), which in turn are overshadowed by the level immediately below, the sub-sub quantum level (in nucleon, between the particles that compose it), and so on until we reach the basic level at which the particle can no longer be divided into other components. If the binding energy is higher, the energy released or required to break or compose these connections, is greater as well.

Hydrogen, as a key component, can be obtained in multiple ways, from almost any item, by nuclear reactions, by the decomposition of water under the action of radiation, by electrolysis of water, etc. Burning hydrogen it is not a real source of energy (as on Earth, the hydrogen element is not found so much in isolated forms that can be extracted directly and then used as fuel; hydrogen element is generally achieved with energy consumption greater than the energy released by burning it); but it is more a strategic fuel, like a fuel which can be the life-long of internal combustion engines when the oil fuel will lessen or even will disappear.

Wind energy do not represent a real alternative energy, but in some cases it may be a component to complete certain energy goals.

The energy produced from thermal springs in some areas of the planet is very useful, but are very little compared with the needs of the earth.

Probably wave energy of seas and oceans has not given good results since it was not extended and imposed, the more so as we have a planet covered with water at the rate of 70%.

Maybe in the future, the man will exploit the temperature difference between the different levels of seas and oceans, to produce such energy (energies from seas water).

For now, the water remains a serious source of energy in the chapter, hydropower. From water, it extracts the hydrogen, which through burning turns back into water. From water it obtains "heavy water" (by the converting of the element Hydrogen, into heavy isotope named Deuterium, which contains in nucleus in addition to a proton and a neutron), and which is used as nuclear fuel, in some nuclear power plant.

If we look, retrospect and global, the water and the sun are the major energy sources of our planet. Even the living matter (including man), represents a very high proportion water. The water intervenes directly or indirectly in several ways, into the cellular level processes.

           

Obtaining Energy by the Annihilation of an Electron with a Positron, or Annihilation of a Proton with an Antiproton (case studies presentation)

Getting energy, renewable, clean, friendly (not dangerous), cheaper, by annihilation (For example, the annihilation of an electron with an anti electron). Electron and positron are obtained by extracting them from atoms; the extraction, consume a negligible amount of energy. Then, the two particles are brought near one another (collision); now it occur the phenomenon of annihilation, when the rest mass is converted totally into energy (gamma photons).

Occur gamma photons, as many as needed to retrieve the total energy of the electron and positron (rest energy and kinetic energy); usually one can get two or three gamma particles (when we have a lower annihilation, ie two antiparticles with lower energy, each with a little beyond rest mass, ie the particles are accelerated at a low-speed motion), but we can get more particles when we have a high annihilation (ie when the particle energy is high and the particles were strongly accelerated before the collision).

Rest energy of an electron-positron pairs exceeds slightly 1 MeV (what is an extremely large energy from some as small particles, comparable energy with that achieved by the merger of two much larger particles, having rest mass of about 2000 times higher).

Hence the first great advantage of the new method proposed, namely that if the most complex physical phenomenon so far tried to get inside the material energy (hot or cold fusion), draw only about a thousandth part of the rest mass of the particle, resulting in the fusion of two particles practically only the energy gap between energy particles being free and their energy when they are united, the proposed method to extract virtually all the internal energy of the particles annihilated.

We started with the electron positron pair because these small particles are more easily extracted from the atoms (the atoms are then immediately regenerated naturally, which determines the nature of renewable energy from the annihilation of particles).

Next step is to test the annihilation between a proton and an antiproton, because their mass is about 1800 times higher than that of the electron and positron, resulting in their annihilation as an energy by about 1000 times higher, ie instead of 1 MeV, 1 GeV (is considered as the only real obtained energy, the energy donated by the proton of the hydrogen ion; but the energy of an antiproton is considered to be donated by us almost entirely, for now, because to obtain today an antiproton we must accelerate some particles at very high-energy and then collide them).

So the real comparison must to be made between the deuterons fusion and annihilation process of a hydrogen ion (proton) with an antiproton. It will be a difference of energy of about 1000 times higher per pair of particles used, in favor of the annihilation process.

Practically it realizes the dream of extracting energy from all the matter.     Another great advantage of this method is that no radioactive substances and are not radioactive wastes from the process. From this process we obtain only gamma photons (ie energy) and possibly other energetic mini particles. The process does not pose any threat to humans and the environment.

The energy produced is clean. The technology required is much simpler than nuclear (fission or fusion), cheaper and easier to maintain. Enough energy is given by the annihilation process (virtually unlimited), cheap, clean, safe, renewable immediately (sustainable), with technology made simple.

We can extract the energy of the rest mass of an electron. For a pair of an electron and a positron this energy is circa 1 MeV.

The "synchrotron radiation (synchrotron light source)" produces deliberated a radiation source. Electrons are accelerated to high speeds in several stages to achieve a final energy (that is typically in the GeV range). We need two synchrotrons, a synchrotron for electrons and another who accelerates positrons. The particles must to be collided, after they are being accelerated to an optimal energy level. All the energies are collected at the exit of the Synchrotrons, after the collision of the opposite particles. We will recover the accelerating energy, and in addition we also collect the rest energy of the electrons and positrons.

At a rate of 10^19 electrons/s we obtain an energy of about 7 GWh / year, if even are produced only half of the possible collisions. This high rate can be obtained with 60 pulses per minute and 10^19 electrons per pulse, or with 600 pulses per minute and 10^18 electrons per pulse. If we increase the flow rate of 1,000 times, we can have a power of about 7 TWh / year. This type of energy can be a complement of the fusion energy, and together they must replace the energy obtained by burning hydrocarbons.

Advantages of the annihilation of an electron with a positron, compared with the nuclear fission reactors, are disposal of radioactive waste, of the risk of explosion and of the chain reaction.

Energy from the rest mass of the electron is more easily controlled compared with the fusion reaction, cold or hot.

Now, we don't need of enriched radioactive fuel (as in nuclear fission case), by deuterium, lithium and of accelerated neutrons (like in the cold fusion), of huge temperatures and pressures (as in the hot fusion), etc.

 

Results and Discussion

How much energy, can we get from inside of the matter? Einstein has showed that from one kg of matter we could get the energy needs for entire Earth for a year:

E=m.c2=1[kg].(3.108)2[(m/s)2]=9.1016[j]=2,5.1010[KWh]=2,5.107[MWh]=2,5.104[GWh]=25[TWh]

 

We could do this, but only if we could extract all the energy from inside the matter.

Through nuclear fusion reaction can be extracted only a part of the rest energy of the particles used. This drop of energy (1 / 1000 of the mass energy of a proton-neutron pairs) is called, discrepancy.

For a kg of particles proton-neutron pairs, fusion energy is about a thousand times smaller than the total energy of a kilogram of matter (only 29 [GWh] from the total internal energy, 25 [TWh]); and considering that a return of 100% fusion reaction, which can’t be done anyway.

Theoretically speaking, we can’t draw from within the matter (through nuclear fusion reaction) than at most the thousandth part of its energy. Having in view the yield of the nuclear fusion reaction, this obtained energy is and less.

Through reaction of nuclear fission, the energies obtained will be even smaller.

The solution proposed in this work, obtaining energy by the mutual annihilation of two opposite particles, makes possible the requirement of extracting whole energy contained in matter.

A pair formed by a particle and its antiparticle, are brought side by side, at a distance which allow the process of reciprocal annihilation.

To increase the yield of the annihilation reaction (the number of annihilated particles from all particles that exist), we can accelerate the particles and antiparticles separately, and then we may send them into a room where they encounter annihilation at speeds and energies high, or at velocities and energies very high.

If we use electrons and positrons for the reaction of annihilation, it results photons of the gamma type.

In this case, to prevent the possible decay of the obtained photons, again into electrons and positrons (for beginning of this annihilation process with success), the antiparticles and particles used in the process of annihilation, should be collided at low speeds and with low energy.

We can test then the optimum energy particle which permits the reaction with the maxim yield. It is necessary that most particles and antiparticles used, to meet and annihilate each other, and it should be stable as many of the obtained gamma particles.

 

Conclusions

The fission energy was a necessary evil. In this mode it stretched the oil life, avoiding an energy crisis. Even so, the energy obtained from hydrocarbons represents today about 66% of all energy used. At this rate of use of oil, it will be consumed in about 40 years. Today, the production of energy obtained by nuclear fusion is not yet perfect prepared. But time passes quickly. We must rush to implement of the additional sources of energy already known, but and find new energy sources. In these conditions the proposed method to obtaining energy by annihilation of matter and antimatter, can be a real alternative sources of renewable energy.

 

References:

  • EWEA Executive summary "Analysis of Wind Energy in the EU-25" (PDF). European Wind Energy Association. http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/ewea_documents/documents/publications/WETF/Facts_Summary.pdf EWEA Executive summary. Retrieved 2007-03-11. 
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2010, September 13). Funneling solar energy: Antenna made of carbon nanotubes could make photovoltaic cells more efficient. Science Daily. Retrieved September 21, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2010/09/100912151548.htm
  • "Towards Sustainable Production and Use of Resources: Assessing Biofuels". United Nations Environment Programme. 2009-10-16. http://www.unep.fr/scp/rpanel/pdf/Assessing_Biofuels_Full_Report.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-24.
  • Petrescu, F. New Aircraft. COMEC 2009, Braşov, ROMANIA, 2009.

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