Energy performance India vs. Spain: As the DNI values are similar, how is the energy yield?

Technical Top Tip courtesy of Suntrace Solar Resource Assessment

1. Comparison between India and Spain

When it comes to solar irradiation in India, everyone would expect this to be better when compared to Spain, for example.
With respect to the Global Horizontal Irradiation GHI, which is relevant for Photovoltaic (PV) projects, this is truly the case. In regard to Direct Normal Irradiation DNI, which is relevant for CSP projects, the annual sum of DNI is almost comparable, with values in the range of 1900-2100 kWh/m2a.
We have compared the DNI values for 2 reference locations, located in regions favorable for CSP project locations:
1. Spain, Andalusia region
2. India, Rajasthan region.
Main assumptions for the comparison:
• Identical DNI of 1950 kWh/m2a for both locations: An individual year with an identical annual sum for DNI in both locations was used for the calculations.
• A standard performance simulation tool for CSP plants was applied.
• Technical configuration: 50MW parabolic trough CSP plant with 8 hours of storage, identical set-up for both locations (no# of loops, cooling method, etc.)
One would expect at first glance that the annual electricity yield of both plants would be approximately equal.

2. DNI frequency distribution
Regarding DNI frequency distribution for the locations in Spain and India, a location in India, compared to a location in Spain, accumulates more hours with moderately high DNI values. While in Spain, only during summer some high DNI values are reached.

3. Energy production
A CSP-plant at the Indian location can deliver significantly more energy compared to a location in Spain with the same average DNI.
Specifically the low production during the cold seasons creates the disadvantage in Spain. The Indian production curve also shows the dip in energy production during the monsoon-summer month (Jun-Aug)

4. Conclusion
This comparison did not reflect a project-specific adjustment of the technology in order to focus on the one variable: DNI frequency distribution.
As a conclusion, one can use as rule of thumb, that energy yield at a location in India could be >20% above a location in Spain with the same average DNI.

5. Optimization
The performance of a parabolic trough plant is a function mainly of DNI, solar field size, and storage size. The plant configuration requires a project specific optimization to identify the feasible size of the plant (number of loops, capacity of thermal energy storage), which can only be optimized once the DNI is properly evaluated. Further optimization will then review the cost related to the technically optimized concepts.

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The expert at Suntrace for this topic is Dr. Richard Meyer. For questions, clarifications and comments please email to , URL:

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